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SARMs overview 2018 – 2019

SARMs

There were 135 PubMed-indexed Studies about SARMs (steroid androgen receptor modulators) at the end of January 2019.

SARMs were a hot topic in American Society of Bone and Mineral Research conference held in Quebec, Canada. The established technologies for improvement of bone function are high dose vitamin D, bisphosphonate drugs and somewhat more novel combination therapy of monoclonal antibodies that attack osteoclasts (cells that normally remodel the bone but cause osteoporosis if their proportion is out of balance) and recombinant parathyroid hormone that supports osteoblasts (bone-building cells) if used intermittently [1]. However, the SARMs were the most interesting from the novelty perspective.

A really interesting study published in 2019 discusses a SARM found from the nature (wild bitter gourd extract) and compared the SARM with testosterone in castrated mice (to unmask the effects of treatment from endogenous male steroid hormones). While testosterone increased the mass of both muscles and male accessory glands (prostate and seminal vesicles), the bitter gourd extract increased grip strenth and acrobatic/balance performance measured with as measured by the typical rotarod test [2]. Boosting mitochondria and their oxidative capacity as well as negating castration-induced muscle decline was proposed as mechanism of action.

A review paper was also published in 2019. It is somewhat a non-news that no SARMs are available as prescription drugs. In summary, the research has found that these molecules seem to have few if any drug interactions and the clinical studies suggest potential future applications for pathological muscle loss, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), hypogonadism and breast cancer [3] as well as, possibly, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (a disease which causes progressive weakness of muscles that is eventually lethal due to withering of breathing muscles). In contrast to uses related to disease, the use of SARMs as performance-enhancing agents was briefly discussed, as these drugs have anabolic effects with less side effects (without excluding potential for abuse), that make SARMs interesting for bodybuilding community.

In addition to regular additions to the set of studies dedicated to development of methods of doping detection, a few other studies were published in 2018: development of transdermal system of administration of SARM LY305 [4] – it improved the speed of muscle and bone repair without overt adverse effects in laboratory rodents, and was well-tolerated in human volunteers. Another study discovered that SARM S42 inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cell line PC-3 [5]. Third study, expectedly, found that YK11 supported the function and proliferation of bone-building osteoblast cells of mice [6], and another study weighed in additional evidence by showing the anti-osteoporosis effects for the currently perhaps the best-known SARM ostarine [7].

Animal studies (especially optimistic ones for the sake of caution) must be taken with a grain of salt, though. A study found that LGD-4033 (that may also be known as ligandrol) metabolizes moderately differently in humans and horses, which adds a layer of complexity to interpretation of animal studies in general as well as doping detection in different species specifically [8].

While the aim of this text was to summarize the studies published in 2019 and 2018, a few studies of interest were published in 2017 deserve mentioning. We will cover this in future posts.

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30590370
[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30600821
[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30503797
[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29527831
[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29444261
[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29491216
[7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29785666
[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29334634

What to to against low testosterone – Replacement, SERMs, SARMs or something else?

SARMs

There’s a new review paper on an interesting topic, titled “Novel Therapy for Male Hypogonadism” from Miami University. We are let known that the last author of the paper [1] was the lead investigator of a drug trial in the past (Natesto, a formulation of testosterone for hypogonadism). The researchers are from Miami. Whether its tropical climate and beautiful beaches play a role on choice of the topic, remains unknown.

Word ‘hypogonadism’ comes from Ancient Greek – hypo meaning sub-; gonad meening seed seed). Hypogonadism is a clinical entity diagnosed with repeated measurement of low testosterone. Clinically, age-related hypogonadism is a type of sexual development delay in boys. Late-onset of hypogonadism can resemble some aspects of old age that are not liked very much by older men.

The paper discusses the recent papers on the clinical meaning of hypogonadism: one of the key issues is that older men with the hypogonadism complaints do not have low testosterone and vice versa.

Several treatment options are available. In addition to physical activity and lifestyle modification that is very important for late-onset hypogonadism, testosterone replacement treatment is the approved treatment while several experimental treatment options have been used as off-label treatments or in scientific studies.

Testosterone replacement is effective against hypogonadism symptoms, but is likely to adversely affect endogenous testosterone production and fertility parameters.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have different estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. SERMs such as tamoxifen and clomiphene improve serum lipids and bone density but tend to increase the incidence of venous thrombembolia. A SERM, Clomiphene citrate works by reducing negative feedback from estradiol to hypothalamus that is at the top of cascade leading to testosterone production. Clomiphene is quite widely used by doctors despite indication being off-label. Clomiphene raises rather than suppresses endogenous testosterone, and spares fertility, and the cost to the patient is lower.

Aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole and exemestane work by reducing conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Estradiol in low doses has beneficial effects but increased levels of estradiol cause undesirable effects other than negative feedback to hypothalamus as well that can be summarized as feminization. While clomiphene is better at increasing testosterone concentration, aromatase inhibitor anastrozole was better at increasing testosterone : estradiol ratio.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) can raise endogenous testosterone production but also FSH is necessary for preservation of fertility. HCG has been used to treat azoospermia caused by steroid abuse. It may be combined with testosterone replacement to preserve the intratesticular levels of endogenous testosterone and and normal semen parameters.

Anabolic steroids such as nandrolone have also been revisited, lately, and considered as possibilities alternative to testosterone replacement because anabolic steroids have desirable effect of muscle selectivity

Finally, SARMs are considered as a novel option for testosterone replacement treatment. The selectivity of SARMs is more desirable than that of anabolic steroids, largely lacking androgenic activity in prostate or sebaceous glands, therefore making these compounds interesting for future pharmacy. However, as is often the case with novel substances – more research is needed before more widespread application may take place.

Source:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29886559

One may only wonder, which of the above would be the first to be considered as an alternative to testosterone replacement treatment first.

Using cryptocurrency to buy SARMs

SARMs online shop

Enhancetech accepts cryptocurrency payments. We support Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH).

Cryptocurrencies are getting more popular and many of our customers would like to use cryptocurrencies to pay for their orders. We are accepting main cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum and Bitcoin Cash. If needed we can accept also other common currencies like Litecoin, just let us know.

By using cryptocurrency to pay, we still need you to accept our sale terms. Please remember all our products, including SARMs, are for research use only.

 

 

New review for Unifiram

Nootropics

We have updated overview article of Unifiram. 

Unifiram (CAS# 272786-64-8) is a substance that was reported in year 2000 to have similar properties to piracetam but more potent in a mouse passive avoidance test. However, unifiram has shown pro-cognitive effects for mice by preventing amnesia induced by scopolamine (muscarinic antagonist), mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist), baclofen (GABA-B agonist), clonidine (alpha-2 agonist), NBQX (AMPA antagonist) in passive avoidance test. Read more about Unifiram.

Unifiram is also available in our shop.

Effects of yohimbine to mind

Nootropics, SARMs

Yohimbine is usually considered an agent that helps to reduce body fat, increase sexual desire and ability for men as well as a stimulant that may cause unpleasant adverse effect of anxiety together with elevation of blood pressure.

However, according to the literature, yohimbine has some other effects as well, including effects on cognition, memory and sleep that may be of interest. Yohimbine (30 mg) reduced errors on letter flank test [1]. A simple version of letter flank test that shows ability to filter out irrelevant stimuli from detecting target letter is available online [2]. However, it increases rapid response impulsivity and errors in a somewhat more complex immediate memory test that has numbers instead of a single letter; the used dosage was a comparable 30 mg dose for a 75 kg person. The problem that occurred with yohimbine was that the test subjects did not read the number thoroughly and prematurely thought that the number was similar to another number presented just before the current. The test is explained online [4] but is not freely available.

Interestingly, yohimbine seems to have a truly interesting sex-specific effects on both memory and cognition of fear. Without affecting learning, it interrupted ability of women to generalize from learned memories [5]. Furthermore, the effect of yohimbine for processing fear-related signals (alteration of amygdala activity) is opposite for men and women [6].

A small study with medical students as subjects used a low dose. It was found that yohimbine improved following cognitive abilities: reaction time (single choice, not multiple choice), critical flicker fusion threshold and working memory (as measured by 1-back and 2-back tests) [7]. However, during glucocorticoid treatment or during high stress, yohimbine may be counterproductive for higher, flexible thought: yohimbine and cortisol together may reduce goal-directed behavior in favor of habitual behavior [8].

 

References:

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858063
[2] https://www.psytoolkit.org/experiment-library/flanker.html
[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15866563
[4] http://www.impulsivity.org/measurement/IMTDMT
[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28253079
[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380165
[7] http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/7854
[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22836250

Credit card payments and new batch of products

SARMs online shop

We have added credit card payments to Enhancetech web shop. Also there are new batch of products available.

Credit Card payments doesn’t include direct payments, but after checkout specific instructions will be sent. There is still option for SEPA payments, which means easy and quite fast bank transfers in EU countries.

There is also updates in our stock. Currently we are out of YK11, Ibutamoren and NSI-189, rest of the products are available for ordering.

YK11 overview added

SARMs

We have added YK11 overview. YK11 is not much researched SARM, but it has interesting and different mechanism of action than other SARMs.

YK11 (CAS# 1370003-76-1) is a molecule with sterol skeleton similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). YK11 is not yet researched in humans, not much is known about it. YK 11 has a dual (selective male sex hormone receptor modulator / myostatin antagonist) mechanism of action. In addition to being a partial agonist of androgen receptor, it is an inducer of follistatin. Follistatin is an antagonist of myostatin, a protein that inhibits muscle growth.
Read more about YK11.
Enhancetech is providing 5mg YK11.

Enhancetech online shop is opened

Nootropics, SARMs, SARMs online shop

We have opened our online shop at ENHANCETECH.eu address. It is possible to buy all products provided by Enhancetech. 

Online shop for nhancetech products is now opened. All our customers can buy now our provided SARMs and other products.

Currently we are offering following products:
Ostarine (MK-2866)
Ligandrol (LGD-4033)
Ibutamoren (MK-677)
Cardarine (GW501516)

All products can be ordered with different ingredient amount.

 

Also we are pointing out, that all products are for research purposes. SARMs are not medicines or food supplements. Please read our sale terms also before buying from e-shop.